Keynote Presentation: The Role of Vaccines in Addressing a looming Global Health Crisis

At the Bill & Melina Gates Foundation we envision a world where every person has the opportunity to live a healthy, productive life.  To that end the foundation invests heavily in vaccines, from discovery, to manufacturing, delivery and policy, an effort that has aided the reduction of global measles, paralytic polio, and COVID-19 disease burden. We are currently facing the looming existential threat of climate change, which affects the most basic requirements of health: clean air, safe water, sufficient food and adequate shelter. Vaccine discovery, development and commercialization can all play a role in mitigating the risk of climate change related health crises. Maximizing manufacturing efficiency, by producing a higher yield per unit of each input, has potential to dramatically reduce cost of the final product. New and evolving tools in computation, materials science, and vaccine delivery similarly provide opportunities for efficiency gains across multiple dimensions, including minimizing development time, streamlining tech transfer activities, and maximizing protective responses and vaccine coverage while minimizing injection pain and adverse events. New technologies that control vaccine release may be deployable to maximize efficiency for existing vaccines and achieve robust protection against intractable infections like HIV and malaria.