Emerging infectious diseases can cause epidemics or pandemics, as the current global COVID-19 outbreak has well demonstrated. Rapidly responding to such outbreaks requires adequate public health capabilities including the ability to rapidly develop, evaluate, manufacture, and deploy adequate supplies of preventative vaccines. Early on during the pandemic, the Food and Drug Administration issued guidance to help expedite the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In the United States there are three vaccines now authorized or approved for use. These include one of the vaccines that is available for use in individuals at least 5 years of age. Additional primary vaccine doses have also been authorized for certain immunocompromised individuals and boosters have been authorized for all adults. The development of COVID-19 vaccines for the youngest children is currently ongoing.